Monta Ellis scored a season-high 37 points, Anthony Morrow added a season-best 27 to end Dallas' five-game winning streak.
Dallas held a 98-89 lead before Golden State answered with a 14-2 run capped by seven straight points from Curry, including a 3-pointer with 2:20 left for a 103-100 lead.
Golden State closed with a 24-7 run and won consecutive games for the first time this season.
The Mavs played without three starters: forwards Shawn Marion, Josh Howard, and center Erick Dampier.
Former Mavs coach and current Warriors coach Don Nelson did not travel to Dallas because he is home recovering from pneumonia.
The loss kicked off a stretch of four games in five nights for the Mavs who will travel to Houston Wednesday to play the Rockets. After Houston, the team travels to Indianapolis and Cleveland before returning home next week.