The club has signed catcher Adam Melhuse to a minor league contract, and he was also invited to big league camp this spring.
"The signing of Omar gives us some additional depth in the infield," said Rangers General Manager Jon Daniels. "His experience and years of defensive excellence should be an asset to all of our young players."
Vizquel, 41, ranks second all-time with 11 Gold Glove Awards at shortstop, trailing only Hall of Famer Ozzie Smith (13). He spent the past four seasons with San Francisco.
Melhuse, 36, made the Rangers' Opening Day roster last year as the backup catcher. He appeared in 8 games (5 starts) with Texas before he was released on April 25.
He signed with the Colorado organization on June 24 and spent the remainder of the year in their system.
Melhuse has made an Opening Day roster in each of the last five seasons.