Tennessee v. Scopes (1925)
On July 21, 1925, John Thomas Scopes was found guilty of teaching of human evolution in a state-funded school in Dayton, Tennessee.
The case – commonly referred to as the ‘monkey scopes trial’ – was a public battle over Tennessee’s Butler Act, which made it illegal to teach human evolution in public education. It was a proxy for the fundamentalist-modernist debate; it was expected to determine whether science that conflicts with certain religious interpretations would be allowed in schools.
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While Scopes was found guilty, the verdict was later overturned. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) financed Scopes’s case.
Evolutionary science was later legislated into public education in 1958 – The National Defense Education Act.
President Herbert Hoover establishes the VA (1930)
On July 21, 1930, President Herbert Hoover consolidated veterans programs and elevated them to a federal administration - creating the Veterans Administration.
Following World War II, due to the exponential increase in the veteran population, Congress enacted the GI Bill – making the VA a major funding and personnel priority.
The Department of Veterans Affairs now manages housing benefits, health-care, unemployment-aid, cemeteries and more for this nation’s veterans and their families.