House Republicans elected Sessions, R-Dallas, to lead the committee after deciding to keep Rep. John Boehner of Ohio as the party's leader in the House. Boehner had endorsed Sessions.
Rep. Tom Cole, R-Okla, the current chairman, had wanted the job again, but withdrew just before the vote and nominated Sessions.
Sessions had tried for the job in 2006, but Cole won the three-way election.
"My mission is simple: Republicans will have my tireless and steadfast resolve to win 218 seats in the House of Representatives. Rebuilding the Republican majority begins today," Sessions said.
On Tuesday, Senate Republicans elected Sen. John Cornyn of Texas as chairman of the National Republican Senatorial Committee.
Sessions and Cornyn will play critical roles for the party as the GOP tries to recover from this year's election losses. The GOP lost seats in both chambers. The committees the two Texans will lead are responsible for fund-raising and helping GOP campaigns around the country.
Rep. John Carter, R-Round Rock, was re-elected as the GOP conference secretary.