Rangers assistant general manager Thad Levine says Beltre has a condition called spinal stenosis.
Levine says the Rangers don't know of any other baseball player who has had this surgery. He says the condition is more often seen in older people and is "uncharted waters" for a professional athlete.
The 29-year-old Beltre made two starts for Texas last season. He's been in the Rangers organization since 2000.
Pitchers and catchers reported to spring training Wednesday for the AL champions.